Semantic Features Analysis Definition, Examples, Applications

semantic analysis example

Moreover, QuestionPro might connect with other specialized semantic analysis tools or NLP platforms, depending on its integrations or APIs. This integration could enhance the analysis by leveraging more advanced semantic processing capabilities from external tools. QuestionPro often includes text analytics features that perform sentiment analysis on open-ended survey responses. While not a full-fledged semantic analysis tool, it can help understand the general sentiment (positive, negative, neutral) expressed within the text.

A Simple Guide to Latent Semantic Indexing (analysis) and How it Bolsters Search –

A Simple Guide to Latent Semantic Indexing (analysis) and How it Bolsters Search.

Posted: Thu, 20 Apr 2023 07:00:00 GMT [source]

Much of the credit for the recent enlightenment and subsequent increase in interest in TA can arguably be afforded to Braun and Clarke’s (2006) inaugural publication on the topic of thematic analysis in the field of psychology. However, on numerous occasions Braun and Clarke have identified a tendency for scholars to cite their 2006 article, but fail to fully adhere to their contemporary approach to RTA (see Braun and Clarke 2013, 2019, 2020). Commendably, they have acknowledged that their 2006 paper left several aspect of their approach incompletely defined and open to interpretation. Indeed, the term ‘reflexive thematic analysis’ only recently came about in response to these misconceptions (Braun and Clarke 2019). Much of their subsequent body of literature in this area addresses these issues and attempts to correct some of the misconceptions in the wider literature regarding their approach.

Tokenising and vectorising text data

It analyzes text to reveal the type of sentiment, emotion, data category, and the relation between words based on the semantic role of the keywords used in the text. According to IBM, semantic analysis has saved 50% of the company’s time on the information gathering process. Although Braun and Clarke are widely published on the topic of reflexive thematic analysis, confusion persists in the wider literature regarding the appropriate implementation of this approach.

semantic analysis example

It’s easier to see the merits if we specify a number of documents and topics. Suppose we had 100 articles and 10,000 different terms (just think of how many unique words there would be all those articles, from “amendment” to “zealous”!). When we start to break our data down into the 3 components, we can actually choose the number of topics — we could choose to have 10,000 different topics, if we genuinely thought that was reasonable.

A company can scale up its customer communication by using semantic analysis-based tools. It could be BOTs that act as doorkeepers or even on-site semantic search engines. By allowing customers to “talk freely”, without binding up to a format – a firm can gather significant volumes of quality data. Sentiment analysis, a subset of semantic analysis, dives deep into textual data to gauge emotions and sentiments. Companies use this to understand customer feedback, online reviews, or social media mentions. For instance, if a new smartphone receives reviews like “The battery doesn’t last half a day!

Understanding Types in Semantic Analysis

As codes and themes change and evolve over the course of the analysis, so too can the write-up. Changes should be well documented by this phase and reflected in informal notes and memos, as well as a research journal that should be kept over the entire course of the research. In the present example, an experiential orientation to data interpretation was adopted in order to emphasise meaning and meaningfulness as ascribed by participants. An experiential orientation was most appropriate as the aim of the study was to prioritise educators’ own accounts of their attitudes, opinions. Coding reliability approaches, such as those espoused by Boyatzis (1998) and Joffe (2012), accentuate the measurement of accuracy or reliability when coding data, often involving the use of a structured codebook. The researcher would also seek a degree of consensus among multiple coders, which can be measured using Cohen’s Kappa (Braun and Clarke 2013).

Indeed, semantic analysis is pivotal, fostering better user experiences and enabling more efficient information retrieval and processing. One can train machines to make near-accurate predictions by providing text samples as input to semantically-enhanced ML algorithms. Machine learning-based semantic analysis involves sub-tasks such as relationship extraction and word sense disambiguation. Semantic analysis helps in processing customer queries and understanding their meaning, thereby allowing an organization to understand the customer’s inclination.

QuestionPro, a survey and research platform, might have certain features or functionalities that could complement or support the semantic analysis process. Semantic analysis systems are used by more than just B2B and B2C companies to improve the customer experience. Google made its semantic tool to help searchers understand things better.


process involves contextual text mining that identifies and extrudes

subjective-type insight from various data sources. But, when

analyzing the views expressed in social media, it is usually confined to mapping

the essential sentiments and the count-based parameters. In other words, it is

the step for a brand to explore what its target customers have on their minds

about a business.

In the cells we would have a different numbers that indicated how strongly that document belonged to the particular topic (see Figure 3). With the help of semantic markup, Google is able to identify and use key information from a page. In exchange, web publishers get “rich snippets“, that is, search listings that are more detailed than those that do not use semantics.

When was created in 2011, website owners were offered even more ways to convey the meaning of a document (and its different parts) to a machine. From then on, we’ve been able to point a search crawler to the author of the page, type of content (article, FAQ, review, and other such pages) and its purpose (fact-check, contact details, and more). The most important task of semantic analysis is to get the proper meaning of the sentence. For example, analyze the sentence “Ram is great.” In this sentence, the speaker is talking either about Lord Ram or about a person whose name is Ram. That is why the job, to get the proper meaning of the sentence, of semantic analyzer is important.

Semantic codes are identified through the explicit or surface meanings of the data. The researcher does not examine beyond what a respondent has said or written. The production of semantic codes can be described as a descriptive analysis of the data, aimed solely at presenting the content of the data as communicated by the respondent. Latent coding goes beyond the descriptive level of the data and attempts to identify hidden meanings or underlying assumptions, ideas, or ideologies that may shape or inform the descriptive or semantic content of the data.

The purpose of semantic analysis is to draw exact meaning, or you can say dictionary meaning from the text. Semantic analysis transforms data (written or verbal) into concrete action plans. Analyzing the meaning of the client’s words is a golden lever, deploying operational improvements and bringing services to the clientele. Effectively, support services receive numerous multichannel requests every day. I will show you how straightforward it is to conduct Chi square test based feature selection on our large scale data set.

Adopting an experiential orientation requires an appreciation that the thoughts, feelings and experiences of participants are a reflection of personal states held internally by the participant. Conversely, a critical orientation appreciates and analyses discourse as if it were constitutive, rather than reflective, of respondents’ personal states (Braun and Clarke 2014). As such, a critical perspective seeks to interrogate patterns and themes of meaning with a theoretical understanding that language can create, rather than merely reflect, a given social reality (Terry et al. 2017). A critical perspective can examine the mechanisms that inform the construction of systems of meaning, and therefore offer interpretations of meaning further to those explicitly communicated by participants.

It is a crucial component of Natural Language Processing (NLP) and the inspiration for applications like chatbots, search engines, and text analysis using machine learning. Customers benefit from such a support system as they receive timely and accurate responses on the issues raised by them. Moreover, the system can prioritize or flag urgent requests and route them to the respective customer service teams for immediate action with semantic analysis. Apart from these vital elements, the semantic analysis also uses semiotics and collocations to understand and interpret language. Semiotics refers to what the word means and also the meaning it evokes or communicates. For example, ‘tea’ refers to a hot beverage, while it also evokes refreshment, alertness, and many other associations.

semantic analysis example

You can foun additiona information about ai customer service and artificial intelligence and NLP. B2B and B2C companies are not the only ones to deploy systems of semantic analysis to optimize the customer experience. Google developed its own semantic tool to improve the understanding of user searchers. Search engines like Google heavily rely on semantic analysis to produce relevant search results. Earlier search algorithms focused on keyword matching, but with semantic search, the emphasis is on understanding the intent behind the search query. If someone searches for “Apple not turning on,” the search engine recognizes that the user might be referring to an Apple product (like an iPhone or MacBook) that won’t power on, rather than the fruit. In simple words, we can say that lexical semantics represents the relationship between lexical items, the meaning of sentences, and the syntax of the sentence.

Semantic analysis ensures that translated content retains the nuances, cultural references, and overall meaning of the original text. With the help of semantic analysis, machine learning tools can recognize a ticket either as a “Payment issue” or a“Shipping problem”. Therefore, in semantic analysis with machine learning, computers use Word Sense Disambiguation to determine which meaning is correct in the given context. Beyond just understanding words, it deciphers complex customer inquiries, unraveling the intent behind user searches and guiding customer service teams towards more effective responses.


In their 2006 paper, Braun and Clarke (2006) originally conceptualised RTA as a paradigmatically flexible analytical method, suitable for use within a wide range of ontological and epistemological considerations. In recent publications, the authors have moved away from this view, instead defining RTA as a purely qualitative approach. This pushes the use RTA into exclusivity under appropriate qualitative paradigms (e.g. constructionism) (Braun and Clarke 2019, 2020). As opposed to other forms of qualitative analysis such as content analysis (Vaismoradi et al. 2013), and even other forms of TA such as Boyatzis’ (1998) approach, RTA eschews any positivistic notions of data interpretation. Latent semantic analysis (sometimes latent semantic indexing), is a class of techniques where documents are represented as vectors in term space.

Themes are assessed as to how well they provide the most apt interpretation of the data in relation to the research question(s). Braun and Clarke have proposed that, when addressing these key questions, it may be useful to observe Patton’s (1990) ‘dual criteria for judging categories’ (i.e. internal homogeneity and external heterogeneity). The aim of Patton’s dual criteria would be to observe internal homogeneity within themes at the level one review, while observing external heterogeneity among themes at the level two review.

Here, however, sufficient evidence has already been established to illustrate the perspectives of the participants. The report turns to a deeper analysis of what has been said and how it has been said. Specifically, the way in which participants seemed to construe an ‘appropriate educator’ was examined and related to existing literature. The analytical interpretation of this data extract (and others) proposes interesting implications regarding the way in which participants constructed their schema of an ‘appropriate educator’. The research questions for this study were addressed within a paradigmatic framework of interpretivism and constructivism.

Critical elements of semantic analysis

The idea of entity extraction is to identify named entities in text, such as names of people, companies, places, etc. In Sentiment analysis, our aim is to detect the emotions as positive, negative, or neutral in a text to denote urgency. In that case, it becomes an example of a homonym, as the meanings are unrelated to each other.

semantic analysis example

Moreover, context is equally important while processing the language, as it takes into account the environment of the sentence and then attributes the correct meaning to it. At this phase, the researcher is tasked with presenting a detailed analysis of the thematic framework. Each individual theme and sub-theme is to be expressed in relation to both the dataset and the research question(s). As per Patton’s (1990) dual criteria, each theme should provide a coherent and internally consistent account of the data that cannot be told by the other themes.

Word Sense Disambiguation

A strong grasp of semantic analysis helps firms improve their communication with customers without needing to talk much. Natural Language Processing or NLP is a branch of computer science that deals with analyzing spoken and written language. Advances in NLP have led to breakthrough innovations such as chatbots, automated content creators, summarizers, and sentiment analyzers. The field’s ultimate goal is to ensure that computers understand and process language as well as humans. Now, we have a brief idea of meaning representation that shows how to put together the building blocks of semantic systems. In other words, it shows how to put together entities, concepts, relations, and predicates to describe a situation.

In semantic analysis, relationships include various entities, such as an individual’s name, place, company, designation, etc. Moreover, semantic categories such as, ‘is the chairman of,’ ‘main branch located a’’, ‘stays at,’ and others connect the above entities. While, as humans, it is pretty simple for us to understand the meaning of textual information, it is not so in the case of machines. Thus, machines tend to represent the text in specific formats in order to interpret its meaning.

Table 1 provides an excerpt of a Microsoft Excel (2016) spreadsheet that was established to track iterations of coding and document the overall analytical process. All codes developed during the first iteration of coding were transferred into this spreadsheet along with a label identifying the respective participant. The original transcripts were still regularly consulted to assess existing codes and examine for the interpretation of new codes as further familiarity with the data developed. Column one presents a reference number for the data item that was coded, while column two indicates the participant who provided each data item. Columns four and five indicate the iteration of the coding process to be the third and fourth iteration, respectively.

This practice, known as “social listening,” involves gauging user satisfaction or dissatisfaction through social media channels. Chatbots, virtual assistants, and recommendation systems benefit from semantic analysis by providing more accurate and context-aware responses, thus significantly improving user satisfaction. It helps understand the true meaning of words, phrases, and sentences, leading to a more accurate interpretation of text.

As discussed earlier, semantic analysis is a vital component of any automated ticketing support. It understands the text within each ticket, filters it based on the context, and directs the tickets to the right person or department (IT help desk, legal or sales department, etc.). All in all, semantic analysis enables chatbots to focus on user needs and address their queries in lesser time and lower cost. Chatbots help customers immensely as they facilitate shipping, answer queries, and also offer personalized guidance and input on how to proceed further.

Semantic analysis can also benefit SEO (search engine optimisation) by helping to decode the content of a users’ Google searches and to be able to offer optimised and correctly referenced content. The goal is to boost traffic, all while improving the relevance of results for the user. As such, semantic analysis helps position the content of a website based on a number of specific keywords (with expressions like “long tail” keywords) in order to multiply the available entry points to a certain page.

In my opinion, an accurate design of data structures counts for the most part of any algorithm. In different words, your strategy may be brilliant, but if your data storage is bad the overall result will be bad too. Latent Dirichlet allocation involves attributing document terms to topics.

Automated semantic analysis works with the help of machine learning algorithms. However, machines first need to be trained to make sense of human language and understand the context in which words are used; otherwise, they might misinterpret the word “joke” as positive. Pairing QuestionPro’s survey features with specialized semantic analysis tools or NLP platforms allows for a deeper understanding of survey text data, yielding profound insights for improved decision-making. It recreates a crucial role in enhancing the understanding of data for machine learning models, thereby making them capable of reasoning and understanding context more effectively. Semantic analysis forms the backbone of many NLP tasks, enabling machines to understand and process language more effectively, leading to improved machine translation, sentiment analysis, etc. Search engines can provide more relevant results by understanding user queries better, considering the context and meaning rather than just keywords.

semantic analysis example

Unfortunately Java does not support self-type, but let’s assume for a moment it does, and let’s see how to rewrite the previous method. Another problem that static typing carries with itself is about the type assigned to an object when a method is invoked on it. The Grammar I designed defines as basic types int, float, null, string, bool and list. I am using symbolic names, implemented like an enum object, but with integer values to easily access the lookup table.

Moreover, with the ability to capture the context of user searches, the engine can provide accurate and relevant results. These chatbots act as semantic analysis tools that are enabled with keyword recognition and conversational capabilities. These tools help resolve customer problems in minimal time, thereby increasing customer satisfaction. Moreover, granular insights derived from the text allow teams to identify the areas with loopholes and work on their improvement on priority.

This is necessary to be able to identify appropriate information that may be relevant to the research question(s). Manual transcription of data can be a very useful activity for the researcher in this regard, and can greatly semantic analysis example facilitate a deep immersion into the data. Data should be transcribed orthographically, noting inflections, breaks, pauses, tones, etc. on the part of both the interviewer and the participant (Braun and Clarke 2013).

semantic analysis example

In the larger context, this enables agents to focus on the prioritization of urgent matters and deal with them on an immediate basis. It also shortens response time considerably, which keeps customers satisfied and happy. The semantic analysis uses two distinct techniques to obtain information from text or corpus of data.

Several companies are using the sentiment analysis functionality to understand the voice of their customers, extract sentiments and emotions from text, and, in turn, derive actionable data from them. It helps capture the tone of customers when they post reviews and opinions on social media posts or company websites. Google incorporated ‘semantic analysis’ into its framework by developing its tool to understand and improve user searches.

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